The Science Behind Baltic Amber: Understanding Its Healing Properties

Exploring the Mystical and Medicinal Marvels of Nature's Ancient Resin

5/24/20244 min read

Baltic amber, often referred to as "Baltic gold," has been cherished for centuries not just for its beauty but also for its purported healing properties. From teething necklaces for infants to pain relief and anti-inflammatory uses for adults, Baltic amber is surrounded by a rich tapestry of folklore and traditional medicine. But what does science say about these claims? Let's delve into the chemistry and potential therapeutic effects of Baltic amber to understand its healing properties.

What is Baltic Amber?

Baltic amber is fossilized tree resin from ancient forests that existed around 44 million years ago in the Baltic Sea region. Over millions of years, this resin underwent a process of polymerization and oxidation, turning into the hard, translucent substance we know today as amber.

The Chemical Composition of Baltic Amber

Baltic amber is primarily composed of a complex mixture of organic compounds, with a high concentration of succinic acid, which accounts for about 3-8% of its weight. Succinic acid is a key component that is often highlighted for its supposed therapeutic effects.

Succinic Acid: The Star Component

Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid naturally found in various living organisms. It plays a crucial role in the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle), which is a central metabolic pathway in cells. Succinic acid's involvement in cellular respiration and energy production hints at its potential biological benefits.

The Healing Properties of Baltic Amber

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Succinic acid has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. When Baltic amber is worn against the skin, it's believed that body heat causes the release of small amounts of succinic acid, which can be absorbed through the skin. This absorption may help reduce inflammation and ease pain, providing relief for conditions like arthritis and muscle soreness.

  2. Pain Relief: Beyond its anti-inflammatory properties, succinic acid is also thought to act as an analgesic. The idea is that by reducing inflammation, it can also alleviate the pain associated with it. This is particularly relevant for teething infants, where amber teething necklaces are popular. Although the scientific evidence is limited, many parents report that these necklaces help soothe their children’s discomfort.

  3. Stress Reduction and Immune Support: Some proponents claim that succinic acid can help reduce stress and boost the immune system. While direct scientific evidence supporting this is scarce, succinic acid's role in the Krebs cycle and overall cellular health may suggest a potential for enhancing general well-being and resilience against stress.

Succinic Acid and Cellular Metabolism

To appreciate the potential health benefits of succinic acid, it helps to understand its role in cellular metabolism. The Krebs cycle is essential for converting nutrients into energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Succinic acid acts as an intermediate in this cycle, contributing to efficient energy production. Enhanced energy metabolism at the cellular level can potentially lead to improved overall health and vitality, providing a scientific basis for some of the claims associated with Baltic amber.

Scientific Evidence and Skepticism

While the above mechanisms are theoretically plausible, it’s important to note that rigorous scientific studies validating these claims are limited. Much of the evidence is anecdotal, with a few small-scale studies suggesting beneficial effects. The primary challenge lies in the difficulty of measuring the exact amount of succinic acid released and absorbed through the skin, and its subsequent impact on health.

Safety and Usage Considerations

Despite the limited scientific backing, Baltic amber remains popular in holistic and alternative medicine circles. For those interested in using Baltic amber, here are a few guidelines:

  • Teething Necklaces: Ensure that they are well-made and that infants are supervised to prevent choking hazards. It's crucial to remove the necklace during sleep or when unsupervised. Some experts recommend using amber bracelets or anklets instead to mitigate the risk of choking.

  • Jewelry for Adults: Wearing amber bracelets, necklaces, or rings can be a stylish way to potentially benefit from its properties. Amber should be in direct contact with the skin to maximize potential benefits. Consistency is key; wearing amber regularly may increase its efficacy.

Historical and Cultural Significance

Baltic amber has a rich cultural history, spanning several millennia. Ancient civilizations, including the Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians, prized amber for its beauty and believed in its protective and healing powers. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder wrote extensively about amber's therapeutic properties in his encyclopedia, "Natural History." Amber was used in various forms—powdered, as an ingredient in ointments, and worn as jewelry—to ward off ailments and promote health.

Modern Research and Future Directions

Modern research into the therapeutic properties of Baltic amber is still in its early stages. Future studies could provide more definitive answers about the efficacy of succinic acid and other compounds found in amber. Researchers could explore:

  • Absorption Rates: Detailed studies on how much succinic acid is absorbed through the skin and its bioavailability.

  • Biological Impact: Investigation into the specific biological effects of succinic acid on inflammation, pain modulation, and stress response.

  • Comparative Studies: Comparing Baltic amber to other natural remedies to understand its relative efficacy and potential synergistic effects.

Anecdotal Evidence and Personal Testimonials

While scientific validation is essential, anecdotal evidence and personal testimonials contribute significantly to the popularity of Baltic amber. Many individuals and parents swear by the benefits of amber, reporting noticeable improvements in pain relief, reduced teething discomfort in babies, and general well-being. These personal experiences, while subjective, underscore the importance of understanding and respecting traditional practices and individual beliefs.


Baltic amber's allure lies not only in its warm, golden hue but also in its rich history of use as a natural remedy. While the scientific community remains cautious and calls for more rigorous research, the traditional use of Baltic amber continues to thrive. Whether you are a skeptic or a believer, the fascinating blend of science, history, and personal testimony makes Baltic amber a compelling subject of interest. Whether for its purported healing properties or its aesthetic appeal, Baltic amber remains a treasured natural material with a story that spans millions of years.

By embracing both the scientific curiosity and the cultural heritage associated with Baltic amber, we can appreciate its full spectrum of significance, from a relic of ancient forests to a modern symbol of natural healing.